Mellitus is present when there is too much glucose in the
blood. Insulin is a hormone that lowers glucose levels in
the blood. Glucose (a form of sugar) is the main source
of fuel for our bodies.
It comes from foods containing carbohydrate. Diabetes Mellitus
develops when the pancreas (the organ responsible for producing
insulin) is either unable to make insulin, or the insulin
is unable to work effectively or both. Without
insulin doing its job, glucose builds up in the
blood leading to high blood glucose levels causing health
are two main types of diabetes :
This type of diabetes used to be called Insulin
Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Juvenile Onset Diabetes.
It usually occurs in people under 30 years,
but can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes affects
approximately 5 per cent of people with diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces no insulin because
the cells which make insulin have been destroyed by
the immune system. Therefore people with type 1 diabetes
require insulin injections to control their blood
This type of diabetes used to be called Non-Insulin
Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Maturity Onset Diabetes.
It usually occurs in people who are over the
age of 40 years and have a family history of
diabetes; people are often overweight and inactive,
although there are some exceptions.
2 diabetes affects approximately 95 per cent of people with
diabetes. Being overweight makes insulin less efficient
at controlling blood glucose levels. This is often
referred to as insulin resistance.
2 diabetes often responds to a healthy eating plan, appropriate
exercise and weight reduction; but sometimes tablets
and then later, insulin may be required.
most at risk of developing type 2 diabetes often have the
following risk factors :
of Chinese, Indian or Pacific Islander heritage and over
high blood pressure
a family history of diabetes
of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander heritage and are
over 55 years of age
had diabetes in pregnancy.
healing of cuts
tired and lethargic
weight loss (for people with type 1)
- finding out as much as you need to know to take responsibility
for your health
- tablets and/or insulin injections
health checks with various members of the diabetes team
a positive mental attitude
monitoring of blood glucose levels
To keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible
(fasting blood sugar from 80 to 120 mg% & PP Blood
Sugar from 120 to 160mg%). This will help prevent
the short term effects of high and low blood
glucose levels and long term complications which
can affect the eyes, kidneys and/or nerves.